The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, an opposition war observer, said several missiles hit areas near Damascus International Airport on the southern edge of the capital and several suburbs. It said the areas hit Syrian military positions as well as some Iranian-backed fighters.
There was no comment from the Israeli military on the attacks near Damascus.
It was the latest strike on Syria since April 14, when several missiles hit Syrian army positions near Damascus.
Israel has carried out hundreds of strikes against targets in Syria over the years, but rarely recognizes or discusses such operations.
However, it has acknowledged that it is targeting the bases of Iran-affiliated militias, such as the Hezbollah group in Lebanon, which has deployed fighters in Syria. It says it will attack arms shipments believed to be destined for the militias.
Israel justifies its attacks on facilities and weapons in Syria by saying an Iranian presence on its northern border is a red line.